خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی وبیوشیمیائی میوه وارتباط آن باصفات ارگانولپتیک دربرخی ارقام بومی و وارداتی گلابی(.Pyrus communis L) ایران

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشکده میوه‌های معتدله و سردسیری، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

2 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد ابهر، ابهر، ایران.

چکیده

در این پژوهش تعداد هفت رقم بومی و پنج رقم وارداتی گلابی (Pyrus communis L.)از نظر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک میوه و صفات بیوشیمائی شامل مواد جامد محلول، اسیدهای آلی قابل تیتر، اسیدیته عصاره، تراکم و اندازه بافت اسکلرئید، اسید آسکوربیک و خصوصیات ارگانولپتیک طی سال 1396 و 1397 ارزیابی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در ارزیابی‌های مورفولوژیک میوه مهمترین صفات متمایز کننده: فرم عمومی و اندازه میوه، نسبت طول به قطر، محل قرارگیری بیشترین قطر، پروفیل کنار میوه، رنگ زمینه و بزرگی عدسک‌ها در رنگ زمینه، بزرگی لکه رنگ روئی و خصوصیات دم میوه بودند. همچنین سه رقم کوشیا، لوئیزبون و اسپادونا، شباهت ظاهری بسیار قابل توجهی داشتند که با توجه به مخلوط این سه رقم در نهالستان‌های گلابی کشور، خصوصیات دم‌میوه شامل: اندازه، ضخامت و میزان خمیدگی از صفات بسیار متمایزکننده در این ارقام بود. میزان مواد جامد محلول در دامنه 14 تا 4/17 درصد متغیر و کمترین آن در رقم زودرس بوره ژیفارد و بالاترین آن در رقم فلسطینی دیده شد. تغییرات میزان اسید قابل تیتر میوه نیز بین 4/3 میلی‌گرم به ازاء گرم وزن تازه میوه در ارقام درگزی، لوئیزبون و اسپادونا تا 4/11 میلی‌گرم به ازاء گرم وزن تازه میوه در رقم دمکج بود. در مجموع بالاترین امتیاز کلی میوه در ارزیابی‌های ارگانولپتیک متعلق به رقم لوئیزبون بود که کیفیت میوه آن بسیارعالی ارزیابی شد. ویژگی های کیفیت میوه این رقم در زمان رسیدن و سایر خصوصیات باغی نظیر سازگاری روی پایه‌های رویشی و تحمل به بیماری آتشک دلیل گسترش آن به عنوان عمده ترین رقم تجاری گلابی ایران است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Morphological and Biochemical Fruit Characteristics and Their Relationship with Organoleptic Attributes in Some Native and Introduced Pear (Pyrus communis L.) Cultivars of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Abdollahi 1
  • F. Tahzibi Hagh 2
1 Temperate Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.
2 Faculty of Agriculture, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the present study, seven native and five introduced pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars were evaluated for fruit morphological traits and biochemical characteristics including total soluble solids, total titratable organic acids, acidity of juice, sclereid cell density and size, ascorbic acid and organoleptic attributes. The results showed that in fruit morphological evaluations, the most important distinguishing traits were general shape and fruit size, length: diameter ratio, position of maximum diameter, fruit side profile, background color and size of lentils in ground color, size of over color area and the characteristics of fruit stalk. Also, three very similar cultivars, Coscia, Louis Bonne and Spadona, showed that these similarities has caused synonym and homonym names for them in some nurseries. However, they were distinguishable by the fruit characteristics including size, thickness and curvature of stalks. Total soluble solids contents of fruit varied from 14 to 17.4%, and the lowest was observed in Beurre Giffard cultivar and the highest in Felestini. Total titratable acid content of the fruit also varied between 3.4 mg g-1 of fresh weight in cv. Dargazi, cv. Louis Bonne and cv. Spadona and 11.4 mg g-1 of fresh weight in cv. Domkaj. In general, the highest overall score of fruit quality in organoleptic evaluations belonged to cv. Louis Bonne, which due to its excellent quality at the ripening time and other characteristics such as compatibility with the clonal rootstocks and fire blight tolerance has become the most popular commercial pear cultivar in Iran, in recent years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pear
  • Sclereid cluster
  • ascorbic acid
  • Firmness of texture
  • Commercial Cultivar
  • Distinct Characteristics
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