ارزیابی صفات زراعی، پایداری عملکرد و ویژگی های کیفیت ژنوتیپ های سیب زمینی در مناطق کشت بهاره کشور

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل (مغان)، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

3 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران.

4 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران.

5 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، خراسان رضوی، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

در این پژوهش 33 ژنوتیپ سیب زمینی شامل 31 کلون پیشرفته سیب‌زمینی حاصل از برنامه‌های به نژادی به همراه دو رقم تجاری آگریا (مناسب برای خلال سیب‌زمینی) و کایزر (مناسب برای تازه‏خوری) به عنوان شاهد در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار و در پنج منطقه (کرج، اردبیل، مشهد، اصفهان و همدان) از نظر صفات زراعی و ویژگی های کیفیت در سال‌های 1397-1394 بررسی شدند. برای تامین غده‌های مورد نیاز برای کشت در پنج منطقه، کلون‌ها در سال 1394 در ایستگاه تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اردبیل تکثیر شدند. در طول دوران رشد و پس از برداشت تعداد و وزن غده در بوته، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه اصلی در بوته، شکل غده، عمق چشم، رنگ پوست و گوشت غده، طول دوره رشد، تعداد غده‌های بدشکل، شکاف‌های رشد غده، حفره‌ای شدن مرکز غده، پوسیدگی قهوه ای حلقوی داخلی غده، تغییر رنگ گوشت غده خام و درصد ماده خشک غده در دو منطقه اردبیل و همدان، و عملکرد غده کل و قابل فروش در پنج منطقه اردبیل، همدان، کرج، مشهد و اصفهان اندازه‌گیری شدند. تجزیه واریانس مرکب داده ها برای عملکرد غده کل و قابل فروش نشان دادکه اثر ژنوتیپ، مکان‌، سال، سال‌ × مکان، ژنوتیپ × مکان، ژنوتیپ × سال و ژنوتیپ × سال × مکان معنی‌داری بود. کلون‌های شماره 1 (1675)، 5 (1375)، 8 (5675) و 26 (1027) دارای بیشترین عملکرد غده بودند. براساس نتایج تجزیه GGE-biplot، کلون‌های متوسط زودرس و پرمحصول شماره 1 (1675) و 8 (5675) دارای بیشترین پایداری عملکرد و کلون‌های متوسط دیررس شماره 5 (1375) و 26 (1027) دارای پایداری عملکرد متوسط بودند. کلون‌های شماره 5 (1375)، 8 (5675) و 26 (1027) از درصد ماده خشک غده بالا، رنگ گوشت غده زرد روشن و پررنگ، بدون غده بدشکل، بدون حفره‌ای شدن مرکز غده، بدون شکاف‌های رشد غده، پوشش خوب، سیاه شدن گوشت غده جزیی و عمق چشم سطحی برخوردار بودند. در نهایت در این پژوهش، چهار کلون 1675، 1375، 5675 و 1027 به عنوان کلون‌های امید بخش پرمحصول و با پایداری عملکرد انتخاب شدند. در سال 1400، کلون 1675 به نام رقم جدید تکتا و کلون 1027 به نام رقم جدید رونا نامگذاری و به جامعه کشاورزان سیب زمینی کار معرفی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Agronomic Traits, Yield Stability and Quality Properties of Potato Genotypes in Spring Potato Growing Areas of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • D. Hassanpanah 1
  • A. Mousapour Gorji 2
  • K. Parvizi 3
  • A. H. Jalali 4
  • K. Shojaei 5
1 Field and Horticulture Crops Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centre of Ardabil (Moghan), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. Ardabil, Iran.
2 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.
3 Field and Horticulture Crops Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centre of Hamadan, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. Hamadan, Iran.
4 Field and Horticulture Crops Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centre of Isfahan, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. Isfahan, Iran.
5 Field and Horticulture Crops Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centre of Khorasan-e-Rzavi, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In this study, 33 pototao genotypes including 31 advanced potato clones obtained from breeding programs with two commercial cultivars Agria (suitable for French-fries) and Caesar (suitable for fresh eating) as controls were evaluated for agronomic traits, yield stability and quality properties using randomized complete block design with three replications in 2015-2018 in five experimental filed stioans; Karaj, Ardabil, Mashhad, Isfahan and Hamadan in Iran. Clones were propagated at Ardebil agricultural and natural resources research station in 2015 to supply required potato tubers for planting in five locations. During growth and after harvest, tuber plant-1 and tuber weight plant-1, plant height, main stem plant-1, tuber shape, depth of the eyes, tuber skin and flesh colour, duration of growth, deformed tubers, tuber growth cracks, tuber hollow heart, inner ring rot of tuber, change of raw tuber flesh colour and tuber dry matter percentage were measured in Ardabil and Hamadan, and total and marketable tuber yield in five locations; Ardabil, Hamadan, Karaj, Mashhad and Isfahan. Combined analysis of variance showed that genotype, year, location, location × year, year × genotype, location × genotype and location × year × genotype significantly affected total and marketable tuber yield. Clones no. 1 (1675), 5 (1375), 8 (5675) and 26 (1027) had the highest tuber yield, respectively. Based on the results of GGE bi-plot model, high yielding clones; no. 1 (1675) and no. 8 (5675) had high yield stability and medium-early maturity, and clones; no. 5 (1375) and no. 26 (1027) had average yield stability and medium-late maturity. Clones no. 5 (1375), no. 8 (5675) and no. 26 (1027) had high tuber dry matter percentage, light yellow flesh and skin colour, without deformed tubers, without tuber hollow heart, without tuber growth cracks, good coverage, low change in flesh colour of raw tuber, low and shallow eye depth. Finally, clones 1675, 1375, 5675 and 1027 were selected as promising clones with high tuber yield and yield stability. In 2021, clone 1675 released as new cultivar with the name of Takta and clone 1027 released with the name of Rona, and are commercially available to potaoto growers in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Potato
  • tuber plant-1
  • marketable tuber yield
  • Yield stability
  • promising clone
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